Optative

 

       adds      ī    or       to   non-thematic  stem

               both  non-thematics   appear  in  weak  form

                    ī     middle voice

                         active voice

 

       thematic    stems   end  in   a,      a  +  ī   =    e

                    bhava   +   ī    =    bhave-t

 

       contingent  upon the occurrence of something else

       may be  or  might be

       not  actually  occurring

       remote  hypotheses    ( if he were doing )

       did not do so in the past

       shades  of  unreality  or  improbability

       possibility   or   probability

       wish

       non-factual          improbable          unlikely           not actual

 

       may / might          can / could           would / should

 

                                 active                                    middle

      class  1            bhū       

    bhavet         bhavetām   bhaveyu:        bhaveta     bhaveyātām       bhaveran

    bhave:         bhavetam   bhaveta         bhavethā:  bhavethām   bhavedhvam                       

    bhaveyam   bhveva       bhavema       bhaveya     bhavevahi      bhavemahi

    -------------------------------------

class   2         lih                       

     lihyāt       lihyātām       lihyu:                    lihīta       lihītām         lihīran

     lihyā:       lihyātam       lihyāta                  lihīthā:     lihīthām       lihīdhvam                     

     lihyām     lihyāva         lihyāma                lihīya        lihīvahi         lihīmahi

      ----------------------------------------------

   Class 3     bhṛ              

       bibhṛyāt    bibhṛyātām   bibhṛyu:           bibhrīta    bibhrīyātām      bibhrīran

    bibhṛyā:     bibhṛyātam  bibhṛyāta      bibhrīthā:  bibhrīyāthām   bibhrīdhvam                    

    bibhṛyām   bibhṛyāva    bibhṛyāma       bibhrīya   bibhrīvahi         bibhrīmahi

     --------------------------------------------

    class   4       div               

     divyet        divyetām      dīvyeyu:             dīvyeta     dīvyetām       dīvyeran

     dīvye:        divyetam      dīvyeta          dīvyethā:   dīvyethām     dīvyedhvam

    dīvyeyam    divyeva       dīveyema          dīvyeya     dīvytvahi       dīvyemahi

     -------------------------------------------

    class  5     śru                 

     śṛṇuyāt    śṛṇuyātām       śṛṇuyur           śṛṇvīta      śṛṇvīyātām        śṛṇvīran

        śṛṇuyā:     śṛṇuyātam      śṛṇuyāta        śṛṇvīthā:  śṛṇvīyāthām     śṛṇvīdhvam                    

     śṛṇuyām   śṛṇuyāva        śṛṇuyāma       śṛṇvīya      śṛṇvīvahi           śṛṇvīmahi

      --------------------------------------

     class  9   grabh             

      gṛbhṇīyāt   gṛbhṇīyātām    gṛbhṇīyu:          gṛbhṇīta     gṛbhṇītām     gṛbhṇīran

      gṛbhṇīyā:   gṛbhṇīyātam   gṛbhṇīyāta      gṛbhṇīthā:  gṛbhṇīthām  gṛbhṇīdhvam                                

   gṛbhṇīyām   gṛbhṇīyāva   gṛbhṇīyāma      gṛbhṇīya    gṛbhṇīvahi     gṛbhṇīmahi

 

             ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

 

 

 

         tvam  tām  jaye:

                    you   her   should-praise

                                 c1   puj   reverevce    caus.

         sa:  raket   grāmam  balena 

            he  should-protect  village  with-force          c1   rakṣ

 

       āvām  gṛham  āgaccheva 

          we2    to-house   should-come

 

      āvām  pattram  likheva

               we2    letter   should-write       c6   likh

 

          te:  māse  māse   dhanam  yaccheyu:

                 they   in-past-month   money    should-give   c1  yam   extend

 

          tau   grāmam  adya  gacchetām   

             they2    to-village   today     should-go

 

        mātā   tān  śabdam     bet

            mother   to-them  sound     should-say      c1   bhāṣ

 

           go:  kīteṇa  śiśavī  moderan

                  from-cow     with-milk     children    should-rejoice     c1  mud  be merry   mid.

 

          vayam   gām    tena  atithaye  na  pacema 

             we   cow    for-that-guest    should-not-cook         c1  pac

 

          duhitaram  pitarau  raketām 

              daughter    parents     should-protect

     

          kṣatriyā:    grāmām   rakeyu:

               warriors    villages    should-protect

 

           aham   bhāstram    abhyasyeyam  

               I    text-books   should-study 

 

            śva:   te    tuyeyu:

                  tomorrow   they     should-rejoice        c4   tuṣ   be satisfied

 

             tvam    tasyā:  gṛhe  na   tiṭe:

                 you      her  house    should-not-stay         c1   sthā

 

            sa:  nadīm  na  taret

                 he    river    not    should-swim      class1/6/3/8/2/4   tṛ

                        

              stenā:   mayi   śarān  muńceyu:

                  thieves    at-me    arrows   may-release     c6   muc

 

            aham    vidhīn   na   anutiṭheyam   

                   i           rules      no          should-follow-about

 

                tā:   kāmam     śasyeran

                  they    love         should-praise       c1    śams

 

           kśatriyā:   pāśupālyena   varteran

               warriors   by-cattle-raising  should-subsist         c1  vṛt

 

         sa:   sandigdhām  nāvam  na   ārohet 

             he    doubtful    boat     no   should-mount       c1   ruh     ascend

 

          tatra    yam  vāriṇi  mriyedhvam   

             there     you-all   in-water    might-die

 

          yam     varam      labhedhvam

              you-all      boon          should-obtain       c1   labh    take

 

            sainikā:    mahārājam    severan

                  soldiers     king              should-serve       c1   sev

 

          vānarai:  nāvi   udadhi:   na  ryete

             with-monkeys    in-boat   ocean     no   should-crossed       c1  tṛ   pass.

 

          tvam     śatrurbhi:    na  parājayethā:

          you    by-enemies   no   should-be-over-powered       mid.

 

           sainaka:    aribhi:  yudhyet

             soldier     with-enemies    should-fight     c4   yudh

 

          nauu    yuḍvam    bhavet

               in-boats     battle      should-be

 

          kanye    udyāne  rameyātām

             2girls   in-garden    should-have-fun        c1   ram   enjoy  mid.

 

       mām   cumbet      c1                                  she   me   might-kiss

 

     śva:     vṛṭi:   bhavet     c1                              tomorrow   rain might-be

 

    durkanyā   gṛham   āgacchet               bad-girl    to-house   might-come

 

       pīnām   st            c2   as                                              she   fat   might-be

 

      cumbanām  dadt     c3                                           she  kiss  might-give

 

      patram  na  paṭhet                                     she   letter   might-not-read

 

       adya    yet       c4                                                 she  today  might-sing

 

    sa:  aśvān   ānayet                                                he   horses  might-bring

 

    aham  patram  likheyam       c6                                         I  letter  might-write

 

    śatrava:  adya   āgaccheyu:                         enemies   today  might-come

 

    tā:  kāmam   ānayeyu:      c1                                         they   love   might-bring

 

    te  pāpam  kuryu:        c8                                                   they   bad  might-do

 

    vayam  kanyā:  paśyema     c4                                     we  girls  should-watch