it  looks  like  the  imperfect,  without  the  augment

                          abhavat    -     bhavat

               is a finite verb whose only grammatical features are

                           aspect               present / aorist / perfect

                           voice                 active           middle / passive

                           person / number          with secondary, non-present endings

                           not marked   for   tense / mood


                           completed action irrespective of tense or mood

                           usually  in  main clause        that

                           follows  a verb ( in subordinate clause ) that gives  tense / mood

                                      except for     prohibitions  with      

                                      injunctives don’t occur by themselves,  they follow  tense / mood  verbs

                                      rarely  in  subordinate  clauses

                                      rarely  in  recent past

                                      tense / mood  is supplied by Context or other words


                                              ca          can join different verbs in same  tense/mood

                                                            same  verb   with different  tense/      

                                      injunctive   can  conjoin  with  different  verbs in any tense/mood

                                      imperfect  advances  narrative,  injunctive   tells  ‘wrong’  sequence



                                 present           aorist         perfect


        present               kṛṇoti               ----         ciketa

        past                    akṛṇot           akar-t        aciket-t

  !     injunctive           kṛṇot        kar-t       ciket-t                 missing   a   and   i

        subjunctive        kṛṇavat-i       karat-i        ciketati-i

        opatitive             kṛṇut         kurt        cikitt

        imperative          kṛṇu-hi          kṛdhi         cikiddhi



  Karen Thompson

                    unmarked    past   tense


                   action  irrespective  of  tense or  mood ,  context  shows  what  is  ment




                  non-present   time         


                 verbal  definiteness


                 injunctive =  shall                     subjunctive =  will  ( out of subjects  control )


                 neither    mood    or    tense

                 morphology  shows  only               aspect     voice      person/number

                 meaning   comes   from   context



    parallelism          with        ca

                both   conjuncts    must   be   either

                         different  verbs    in     same    mood/tense

                                        addhi     piba    ca            (  imper. -  imper. )


                        different       mood/tense        same   verb

                                    jaghāna    jaghanat    ca         ( perf.   subj. )


            injunctives    bypass   this   rule

                               but   always   follows    first   verb


          clausal   conjunctions                     main  clause    -    subordinant  clause

                            injunctive      does  not    have    to   follow

                                       but  is  usually   in  main   clause