††† Subjecttypes

††††††††††††††† agent-†† consciousinvolvement

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† instigating,effecting

††††††††††††††† patient / experiencer

 

††† differentVerb types,effect†† rootmeaning / event structure

†††††††††† possibly7typesof†† Present system

†††††††††††††††††††† class†† 1, 4, 6††††††† and†††††† 2, 3,†† 5-7-9 ( closely related )

†††††††††† 7†† aorist

††††††††††††††††††††††††† root, a,redup.††††† and††††† sa - s - is - sis( closely related )

1         perfect

 

†††††††††† derived

††††††††††††††††††††††† desiderative,††† intensive,denominative,†† causative

 

††

††††††††

 

 

 

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root aoriststems†††††††††††††††††† ( change of state)

†††† ††††††achievement††††† accomplishment†††††† typeofverbs

 

††† kar††††††† do††††††††††††††† kar-/kr†††††††††††† akar†††††† made, has made††††††

††† gam††††† go††††††††††††††††† gam-/gm†††††††† agan†††††† came,has come

†† grabh†††† seize, take††††† grabh-/gṛbh†††††† agṛbhran††††they took,has taken

†† ghas††††† consume,exhaust††††††† ghas-/kṣ††††††† aghas†††††† consumed, has consumed

†† cay†††††† note††††††††††††††††† cay-/ci††††††† acet†††††††††††††† noted,has noted

†† cay†††††† gather†††††††††††††† cay-/ci††††††† acet †††††††††††††††gathered, has gathered

†† joṣ†††††† become pleased†††††† joṣ-/juṣ††††† ajuṣran††††††† became pleased, have become pleased

†† tan†††††† stretch†††††††††††††††† tan-/tn††††††††††††† atan††††††††††† stretched, has stretched

†† †††††††† give††††††††††††††††††dā-/dī†††††††††††††† adāt††††††††††† gave,has given

†† dhā††††††† place,†† put††††††† dhā-/dhī†††††††††† adhāt†††††††† placed†† has placed

†† naś††††††† reach††††††††††††††††† naś-/aś††††††††††† ānat†††††††††† reached,has reached

†† bhav†††††† be, become††††††† bhū†††††††††††††††† abhūt†††††††††† become, has become

†† bhed††††††† split††††††††††††††† bhed-/ bhid†††††††† abhed†††††††† split, has split

†† moc††††††† release†††††† moc-/muc††††††† amugdhvam††††††† you released, have released

†† yam†††††† stretch out†††††††† yam††††††††††††† ayamur††††††††††† they stretched out, have stretched out

†† yoj††††††††† yoke††††††††††††††† yoj-/yuj†††††††††† ayukta††††††††††† yoked,has yoked

†† var†††††††† choose††††††††††††† var-/vr††††††††††† avri††††††††††††††† I chose,have chosen

var††††††††† cover†††††††††††††††† var-/vr††††††††††† āvar†††††††††††† covered, has covered

vart††††††††† turn round††††††† vart-/vṛt††††††††† avart†††††††††††† turned round, has turned round

veś†††††††††† enter††††††††††††††† veś-/viś†††††††† aviśran†††††††††† they entered, have entered

śray††††††††† lay†††††††††††††††††† śray-/śri††††††††† aśret†††††††††††† laid,has lain

sarj†††††††††† let loose††††††††††† sarj-/sṛj†††††††† asṛgran††††††††† they let loose, have let loose

sthā††††††††† stand up†††††††††† stā-/sth††††††††† asthāt††††††††† stood, has stood

spar††††††††† let loose††††††††† spar-/spr††††††††† aspar†††††††† let loose, has let loose

††††††††† ===================================================

a††† aorist††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ( change of state )

 

†† as††††††† throw†††††††††††††††††††††† as††††††† asan††††††††††††††††† they throw

†† āp††††††† get, obtain††††††††††††† āpa††††† āpan††††††††††††††††† theyobtained,have obtained

†† kart†††††† split, leave†††††††††††† kṛta††††† akṛtas††††††††††††††† you cut,have cut

†† gardh††††† become greedy†††††† gṛdha†††††† aghṛdhat†††††† became, has become greedy

†† tan†††††††† stretch†††††††††††††††††††† tana†††††† atanat††††††††††† stretched,has stretched

†† ††††††††† give††††††††††††††††††††††† da†††††† adat†††††††††††††††††† gave,has given

†† moc††††††††† release†††††††††††††† moca††††† amucat††††††††††† released,has released

†† rodh†††††††† stop,constrain††††††† rudha†† †††arudhat†††††††† stopped,has stopped

†† toh††††††††† grow strong†††††††††††† ruha††††††† aruhat††††††††††† grew strong,has grown strong

†† varj††††††† wring, bend, turn††††††† vṛja†††††††† avṛjan†††††††††† theywrought,have wrought

†† vardh†††††† †††strenghten†††††††††††† vṛdh††††††† avṛdhat††††††††† strnghtened, has strenghtened

†† ved††††††† find††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vida†††††††† avidat††††††††††††† found, has found

†† sad††††††† sid down††††††††††††††††††† sada†††††† asadat††††††††††† sat down, has sat down

†† san††††††††† gain, win††††††††††††††††† sana†††††† asanat†††††††††††† gained, has gained

†† sar††††††††††† run off††††††††††††††††††† sara††††††† asarat††††††††††† ran off, has run off

†† sec††††††††††† pour††††††††††††††††††††† sica ††††††††asican†††††††††† they poured, have poured

††††††††††† ============================================================

†† sigmatic aorist††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ( change of state )

 

†† gam††††††††† go,come†††††††††††††† gas†††††††† agasmahi††††††††††† we came,†† have come

†† grabh†††††† seize, take††††††††††† grabhi††††† agrabhīt††††††††††††† took,has taken

†† yoj††††††††††† yoke†††††††††††††††††††† yuk†††††††††† ayukaata†††††††††† theyyoked,have yoked

†† vart†††††††† turn round†† ††††††††††††vṛts††††††††††† avṛtsata†††††††††††† theyturned round

†† veś††††††††† enter††††††††††††††††††††† vik†††††††††† avikata††††††††††††† theyentered,haveentered

†† sarj††††††††† let loose††††††††††††††† sṛk††† ††††††asṛkata††††††††††††† theylet loose,have let loose

†† san††††††††††† gain, win†††††††††† sāni-/sani†††† asāniam†††††††† I gained,have gained

††††††††† -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

†† sigmatic aorist††††††††††††††††††††††† ( activity and state )

†††††††††††††††††††

 

av†††††††† help, support†††††††††††††††† aviṣ††††††† āvīt†††††††††††††††††††††††††† helped, has helped

car†††††††† move††††††††††††††††††††††††† cāriṣ††††† acāriṣam††††††† †††††††††††††i moved, have moved

dhāv††††††† run†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dhāviṣ†††††† adhaviṣṭa††††††††††††††† ran,has run

nay†††††††† lead†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† naiṣ-/neṣ††††† aneata†††††††††††††† they†† lead,†† havelead

nart†††††††† ††dance†††††††††††††††††††††††† nartiṣ††††† anartiṣur††††††††††††††††† theydanced, have danced

ned-/nind†††††††† scold†††††††††††††††††††† nindiṣ††††† anindiṣur††††††††††††††† theyscolded, have scolded

bhar†††††††† bear, carry††††††††††† bhārṣ-/bharṣ-/bhṛṣ††††† abhār†††††††††† carried,has carried

yodh†††††††† fight†††††††††††††††††††††††††† yodhiṣ†††††† ayodhīt†††††††††††††† fought,has fought

ram†††††††††† rest†††††††††††††††††††††††††† raṃs†††††† araṃsta†††††††††††††††† rested,has rested

raṇ††††††† be happy, rejoice†††††††††† rāṇiṣ††††††† arāṇiṣut†††††††† theywere happy, have been happy

rav††††††††† cry, bellow††††††††††††††††††††† rāviṣ††††† arāvīt††††††††††††††††† cried,has cried

rep-/lep†††††††† smearlips†††††††† ††††††††††alipsata††††††††††††††††††† they smeared, have smeared

śey††††††††††† lie††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† śayiṣ†††††† aśayiṣṭhās††††††††††† you lay,have lain

svar††††††††† sound, emit a sound†††††††† svārṣ††††††† asvār†††††††††† sounded, has sounded

†††††††††† ================================================================

††† unaccusativeverbs††††

††††††††††††††††††††† intransitive†† with a patient / experiencer†† subject†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

†††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††present stem†††††††††††††††††††††††††† aorist stem

 

oc††††††††† be pleased†††††††††††††††† ucya †††††††††††††††††††††††††††you are pleased

†† jas††††††† get exhausted††††††††† jasya†† jasyata††††††††††† you shall get exhausted††

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† jasa†† jasāmanam†††††† having gotten exhausted

das††††††††† waste away†††††††††† dasya†† dasyati††††††††††† wastes away, is wasting away

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dāsi†† dāsīt††††††††††††††† donít he waste away

naś††††††† perish, disappear††††††† ††††nasya†† naśyati††††††††† perishes,is perishing

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† neś†† neśat††††††††††††††† donít he perish

pad†††††††††† fall††† ††††††††††††††††††††padya†† padyate††††††††† falls, is falling

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† pad†† apadran††††††††††††† they fell,have fallen

po†††††††††flourish†††††††††††††††† puya†† puyati††††††††††††† flourished,is flourishing

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† pua†† puema††††††††††† ††mayweflourish

mar††††††††††† die††††††††††††††††††††† mriya†† mriyase†††††††††††† youdie,youaredying

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† mar†††††murīya††††††††††††† may I die

moh†††††††††† be confused††††† muhya†† muhyantu†††††††† theyshallbe confused

re††††††††††††† become hurt††††† riya†† riyati†††††††††††††††††† is hurt

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† re††† reat††††††††††††††††††††† he†† willbe hurt

śo†††††††††††† become dry†††††† śuya†† śuyatu††††††††††††† shall become dry

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† śua†† śuanta††††††††††††††† havingbecomedry

śram††††††† beexhausted†††† śmya††† śrāmyanti†††††† they†† areexhausted

††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††śrami†† śramima††††††††† donít webecomeexhausted

sādh†††††††† succeed†††††††††††† sidhya†† sidhyati††††††††††††† succeeds,is succeeding

†††††††††† --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

†††† unergative verbs††††††† undirected†† motion†† †††dynamic

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† intransitivewithagentsubject

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† present stem†††††††††††††††††††††††††† aorist stem

 

an†††††††††† breath††††††††††††††††† an†† aniti†††††††††††††††††††††††† breathes,is breathing

ay††††††††††† go†††††††††††††††††††††† i††††† eti††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††goes,is going

aṛ†††††††† flow††††††††††††††††††††† ara†† arati†††††††††††††††††††† flows,is flowing

ās††††††††† sit†††††††††††††††††††††††† ās†† āste††††††††††††††††††††††††† sits,is sitting

īś†††††††††† be master†††††††††††† īś†† īṭe††††††††††††††††††††††††††† is master

kay††††††† live†††††††††††††††††††††† ki†† keti†††††††††††††††††††††††† lives,is living

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ke†† keat††††††††††††††††††† he†† shall†† live

kar††††† †††flow††††††††††††††††††† karkarati††††††††††††††††††††† flows, is flowing

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† kār†† akār††††††††††††††††††††† flowed,hasflowed

car††††††††† move†††††††††††††††† cara†† carati†††††††††††††††††††††† moves,is moving

††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††cāri†† acāriam††††††††††††††††† i moved, have moved

jav†††††††††† hurry†††††††††††††††† javajavete††††††††††††††††††††††† the 2 hurry, are hurrying

jīv†††††††††††† live, be††††††††††† jīva†† jīvati†††††††††††††††††††††††††† lives,is living

drav†††††††††† run††††††††††††††† drava†† dravanti†††††††††††††††††runs,is running

dham†††††††† blow†††††††††††† dham†† dhamati†††††††††††††††††† blows,is blowing

plav††††††††††† swim††††††††††† plavaplavate†††††††††††††††††††† swims,is swimming

bhā††††††††††† shine††††††††††††† bhābhāti†††††††††††††††††††††††††shines,is shining

maṛ†††††††††† be gracious†††† mṛa†† mṛa†††††††††††††††††††††† be gracious

rav††††††††††††† bellow††††††††††† urvaruvati†††††††††††††††††††††††† bellows, is bellowing

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††rāvi†† arāvīt†††††††††††††††††††††† bellowed,has bellowed

rod†††††††††††† cry, weep††††††† rodrodanti†††††††††††††††††††††††† they cry, are crying

śay††††††††††††† lie†††††††††††††††††† śī†† śee††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† youare lying

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sāyiaśāyiṭhās††††††††††††††† you lay,have lain

†† stobh†††††† cheer, exult††††† stobha†† stobhati†††††††††††††††† exults

†† svar††††† utter a sound, resound†† svara†† svaranti†† theyresound,are resounding

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† svār†† asvār†††††† resounded,has resounded

†††††††† ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

†††††††††††† 2 place verbs†††††† determins the statusof Subjectan well asObject

††††††††† 2 place ††state,activityand semelfactive punctual†† verbs

†††††††††† not change of state

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††present††††††††††††††† aorist

†† aj††††††††† drive†††††††††† aja†† ajati††††††††††††† drives,†† is driving

†† ad†††††††† eat†††††††††††† ad††† atti††††††††††††††† eats,†† is eating

†† av††††††† promote††††† ava††† avati†††††††††† supports,†† is supporting

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† avi†† āvīt†††††††††††† supported,†† hassupported

††† ī†††††††† implore†††††† ī†† īṭṭe††††††††††††††† implores

††† ūh†††††††† push††††††††† ūha†† ūhati††††††††††††† pushes,†† is pushing

††† doh†††††† milk†††††††††† doh†† duh††† duhe†††††††††† milks,†† is milking

††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††dhuk†† adhukat†††††††††† milked,†† has milked

††† dve††††† hate††††††††† dve†† dveṭi†††††††††††††††††† hates

††† nay†††††† lead†††††††††† naya†† nayati†††††††††††††††††† leads,†† is leading

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† nai†† ne††† anesata†††††† led,††† has†† lead

††† paś†††††† see,lookat ††††††††††paśya††† paśyati†††††††††††† looks at,is looking at

††† †††††††† protect††††††† †† pāti††††††††††††††††††††††† protects,†† is protecting

††† brav††††† say,speak†††††† bravi†† brū††† bravīti††††††††††† says,†† is saying

††† bhar††††† carry††††††††† bhara†† bharati†††††††††††††††††††††††† carries,†† is carring

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ahār††† abhār††††††††††††††††† carried,†† has carried

††† marj††††† wipe††††††††† marj†† mṛj†† mṛjanti†††††††††††† they†† wipe,†† are†† wiping

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††mṛka†† amṛkāma††††††††††††† wewiped,†† havewiped

††† reh†††††† lick††††††††††††††† reh†† rih††† rehi††††††††††††††††††††† licks,†† is licking

††† vay†††††† seek,†† strive††††††††† vay†† vi††† veti††††††††††††† seeks,†† is seeking

††† vaś†††††† wish,desire††††††††† vaś†† ††† vaṭi†††††††††† wishes

††† vas††††††† wear††††††††††††††††††††† vas†† vaste††††††††††††††††† wears

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vasi†† avasiṭa†††††††††††† wore,hasworn

††† ven†††††† trace,follow††††††††††† vena†† venati†††††††††††††† traces,†† is tracing

†† stav†††††† praise††††††††††††††† stau†† stu††† stoi††††††††††††† ††youpraise,†† arepraising

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sto†† astoi†††††††††††††† i praised,†† havepraised

†† sparś††††† touch,†† caress††††††††† spṛśa††† spṛśanti††††††††† they†† touch,†† aretouching

††† han††††††† smite,†††††††††††††††††††† han†† ghn††† hanti††††††††††† he strikes,†† is striking

††† har††† †††††enjoy,†† be happywith††††† harya†††† haryanti††††††† theyenjoy,†† areenjoying

†††††††† ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

††††††††††††††††††††††† change of state

 

††† as†††††††††† throw†††††††††††††† asya†† asyati†††††††††††††††††††††††† throws,†† isthrowing

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† as†† asan†††††††††††††††††††††† they†† throw

†† kar††††††††† do,make††††††††††† kṛṇo kṛnu†††† kṛṇoti†††††††††††††††††† makes

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† kar†† kr†† akar††††††††††††††††††††† made,††† hasmade

†† grabh††††††† seize,†† take††††††††† gṛbhnā†† gṛbhṇī††† gṛbhṇāti†††††††††††††† takes,is taking

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† grabh†† gṛbh agṛbhran††††††††††††††††† theytook,†† havetaken

†† cay††††††††††† gather††††††††††††† cino†† cinu†† cinoti††††††††††††††††††††††† gathers,is gathering

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† cet†† cit†† acet††††††††††††††††††††††††† gathered,†† hasgathered

†† †††††††††††† give††††††††††††††† dadā†† dad††† dadāti†††††††††††††††† ††††††††††gives,†† is giving

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †† ††† adāt†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† gave,†† hasgiven

†† dhā†††††††† place,put††† ††††††dadhā†† dadh††† dadhāti†††††††††††††††† places,†† is placing

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dhā†† dhī†††† adhāt†††††††††††††††††††††††††† placed,†† hasplaced

bhaj†††††††† divide,†† grant†††††††††††††† bhaja††† bhajati††††††††††††††††††††† grants,†† is granting

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† bhaj††† abhakta †††††††††††††††††††hegranted,†† hasgrantedhimself

†† bhav††††††††† become††††††††††† bhava†† bhavati†††††††††††††††††††††† becomes,†† is becoming

†††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††bhū††† abhūt†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† became,†† has†† become

†† bhed†††††††††† split†††††††††††††† bhinad†† bhind†††† bhinatti†††††††††††††††† splits,†† is splitting

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† bhed†† bhid††† abhed††††††††††††††††††††††††††† split,††† has split

†† man†††††††††† realize,†† think†††††††††† manya†† manyate††††††††††††††††† he thinks,††† is thinking

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† man††† ma††† amata††††††††††††††††††† hethought,†† hasthought

†† moc†††††††††† release†††† ††††††††††muŮca†† muŮmi†††††††††††††††† irelease,†† amreleasing

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† moc†† muc†† amugdhvam††††††††††††††† you†† released††† has†† released

†† yoj††††††† yoke††††††††††††† yunaj†† yuŮj†† yunajmi†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† iyoke,†† amyoking

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† yoj†† yuj††† ayukta†††††††††††††††††††††††††† yoked,††† hasyoked

var††††††† choose†††††††††† vṛṇā†† vṛṇī††† vṛṇīte††††††††††††††††††††††††† chooses,†† is choosing

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† var†† vr†† avri†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† i chose,†† havechosen

†† veś†††††† enter†††††††††††††††††† viśa†† viśanti††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† they†† enter,†† areentering

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† veś†† viś††† aviśran ††††††††††††††††theyentered,†† haveentered

†† sarj††††††† letloose††††††††††† sṛja†† sṛjati†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† lets†† loose,†† is letting loose

††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††sarj†† sṛj††† asṛgran††††††††††††††††††† they†† letloose,†† haveletloose

†† sec ††††††††pour†† out††††††††††† siŮca††† siŮcanti††††††††††† theypourout,†† are†† pouringout

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sica ††asican††††††††††††††††††† they†† pouredout,†† have†† poured out

†††††††† -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

††††††† verbswithnoPresent Stem

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††perfect †††††††††††††††††††††††††aorist

†† āp††††††††† get,†† obtain†††††††††††††††††††† āp†† āpa†††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††has got,†† has

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† āpa††† āpan†††††††††††††††††† they†† obtained,††† have†† obtained

†† kan††††††† becomepleased††††† †††††cākan†† cākana†††††††††††††††††† iampleased

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† kāni†† akāniam††††††††††††††††† waspleased,†† havebecomepleased

†† gardh††††† becomegreedy†††††††††††† jāgṛdh†† jāgṛdhur††††††††††††††††††††† theyaregreedy

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† gṛdh†† agṛdhat†††††††††††† becamegreedy,†† havebecomegreedy

†† cay††††††††† notice,observe†††††††††††† cikāy†† cikāya†††††††††††††††††† observed,†† is observing

†† jar††††††††††† awake†††††††††††††††††††††† †††††jāgar†† jāgāra†††††††††††††††††††††††† isawake

†† jo†††††††††† becomepleased††††††††††††††† jujo†† jujoa†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† enjoys

†††††††††††††††††††††††† jo†† ajuran††††††††††††††††† theybecame pleased,have become pleased

†† tve†††††††††† becomestirred††††††††††† titvi†† titvie†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† is stirred

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† tvia†† atviur†††††††††† †††††††††becamestirred,†† have becomestirred

†† day††††††††† beginto shine††††††††††††††††† dīdāy†† dīdāya††††††††††††††††††††††† shines,†† is shining

†† darś†††† †††††catchsight of†††††††††††††††††† dadarś†† dadarśa†††††††††††††††††††††††††† has†† seen

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dṛś†† adṛśran††††††††††† they†† became†† visible,†† havebecome visible

†† dhay†††††††††† findout††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dīdhay††† dīdhaya†††††††††† I think,†† am thinking

†† śad†††††††††††† get courage†††††††††††††††††††††† śāśad†† śāśadur††††††††††††† they†† havecourage

†††††††††† ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

†††† activity andsemelfactiveverbs

 

††† aj††††††††† drive

†† ad†††††††† eat

†† ay†††††††† go††††††††††††††††††††††††††† iyay†††† iyāya†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† hehasgone

†† av††††††† help,promote†††††††††† āv†††† āvitha†††††††††††††††††††††††††† youhavehelped

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† avi†† āvīt†††††††††††††††††††††††††† supported,hassupported

†† ī†††††††† praise†††††††††† ††††††††††††††ī†† īe†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† haspraised

†† krap†††††† lement†††††††††††††††††† krapi†† akrapiṭa†††††††††††††† helamented,†† haslamented

†† kram††††††† stride††††††††††††††††††††† cakram†† cakrāma†††††††††††††††† hasstridden

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† krami†† akramīt††† †††††††††††††††strode,†† hasstridden

†† car†††††††† move†††††††††††††††††††††† cāri†† acāriam†††††††††††††††††††† imoved,†† havemoved

†† tras††††††††† shiver,†† be afraid

†† doh†††††††††† milk†††††††††††††††††††††††††† duduh†† duduhur††† ††††††††††††††theyhavemilked

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dhuk†† adhukata†††††††††††† theymilked,†† havemilked

†† drav††††††††††† run

†† nay††††††††††††† lead††††††††††††††††††††††† ninay†† nināya††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† haslead

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ne†† aneata††††††††††††††††††††††††† theylead,†† havelead

†† nart††††††††† dance†††††† †††††††††††††††narti†† anartiur††††††††††††† they†† danced,†† havedanced

†† nednind†††††† scold,revile†††††††† ninid†† ninidur††††††††††††††††††† theyhavescloded

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† nindi†† anindiur†††††††††††††† theyscloded,†† havescolded

†† plav††††††† swim

†† brav††††††† say, speak

†† bhar††††††††† bear,carry††††††††††††††† jabhar†† jabhāra†††††††††††††††††††††††† hascarried

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† bhārabhār††††††††††††††††††††††††††† carried,has carried

marj††††††††††† wipe†††††††† †††††††††††††††††māmṛj†† māmṛje††††††††††††††††††††††††† haswiped

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† mṛka†† amṛkanta†††††††††††††††††††††† theyhavewioed

†† yodh††††††† fight†††††††††††††††††††††††††† yuyodh†† yuyodha†††††††††††††††††††††††††† hasfought

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† yodhi†† ayodhīt†††††††††††††††††††† fought,†† has†† fought

†† replep†††††† smear††††††††††††††††††††††† ririp†† riripur†††††††††††††††††††††††† theyhavesmeared

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† lips†† alipsata††††††††† theysmeared ,havesmeared

†† vad†††††††† speak,utter†††††††††††††††††† ūd†† ūdima††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† wehavespoken

†† var††††††††††† rain†††††††††††††††††††††††††† vari†† avarīt†††††††††††††††††††††† rained,hasrained

†† stav†††††††††† praise,extol††††††††††††† tuu†† tuṭuvur††††††††††††††††††††††† theyhavepraised

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sto†† asto††††††††††††††††††††† ipraised,†† havepraised

†† han†††††††††††††† strike††† †††††††††††††††††††jaghan†† jaghāna††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† hasstruck

†††††††††† ††††-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

††††††††††††††††††††† stateverbs

††

†† as†††††††††††† be††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ās††† āsa†††††††††††††††††††††††††† havebeen

†† ās†††††††††††† sit

†† kalp††††††† be in accordance††††††††††† cāklp†† kāklpre†††† they†† have†† been in accordance

†† kay†††††††† have†† power

†† kay††††††††††† live,dwell†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ke†† kesíat†††††††††††††††††††† heshall†† dwell

†† chand††††††† seem,please†††††††††††††††††††††† cachand†† cachanda††††††††††††††† has†† seemed

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† chānts†† achān††††† seemed,†† has†† seemed

†† jīv†††††††††††††††† live

†† tav††††††††††††††† be strong†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† tutav†† tutāva††††† hasbeenstrongeṣt†† hate

†† pan††††††††††††† admire††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† papan†† papana†††††††††††††††††† Ihave†† admired

†† ††††††††††††††† protect

†† bhā††††††††††††† shine

†† mar ††††††††††be gracious†††††††††† mamṛ†† mamṛyur†††† themay have beengracious

†† meth†††††††††††† be hostile†††††††††††††† mineth†† mimetha†††††††††††††††† hasbeenhostile

†† moh††††††††††††† be exhausted

††† ran†††††††††††††† be happy,rejoice††† †††rāran†† rāraṇa††††††††††††††††††† i havebeenhappy

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† rāṇi†† arāṇiur†††† theywerehappy,†† have been happy

ram†††††††††††††††† rest††††††††††††††††† raṃs††† araṅsta†††††††††††††††††††††† ††herested,†† has rested

vaś††††††††††††††† desire

†† vas††††††††††††††† wear†††††††††††††††† vāvas†† vāvase†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† hasworn

††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††vasi†† avasita††† worn,†† hasworn

†† vas ††††††spendthe night††††††††† ū†† ūatur††††††††††††††††††††††††††† the 2 have spent the night

†† †††††††† blow

††† śay†††††††††† lie†††††††††††††††††††††††††† śaśay†† śaśayānas††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† lain

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††śayi†† aśayiṭhās†††††††††††††††††††††††† youlay,†† havelain

†† śram†† beexhausted††† śaśramur†† the have beenexhausted

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† śrami†† śramima††††††††††††† (donít)webecome exhausted