present indicative 1. time of utterance

2. it takes place on a Regular Basis

3. expected to take place in the immediate future

4. past that continues into present to include the latter


5.70.1 purūruṇa cid dhi asti ava: nūnam m varuṇa /

far-and-wide even for is favor-grace now of-you2 O Varuna


mitra vamsi vām sumatim //

O Mitra may-i-win you2s favour

Ao. inj.


8.7.20 kva nam sudāna: madathā vṛktabarhia: /

where now O Generous you-all-be-inebriated O Whose-grass-is-gathered



1.40.5 pra nam brahmaṇas patir mantram vadati ukthyam

forth now Brahmaṇaspati conscious-words says to-praise



7.22.5 na te gira: api mṛye turasya na suṭutim asuryasya vidn

not your songs i-forget of-powerful nor good-hymn, of-divinity having-known

pres. perf. part.

sa te ma svayaśa: vivakmi //

allways your name O Glorious i-announce-mention


1.171.1 prati va e namasā aham emi

towards you with-this-salute i go


sūktena bhike sumatim tuṇām /

with-song-of-praise i-beg good-thought of-superior



7.100.5 pra tat te adya śipiviṭa nāmā

forth that of-you today O Shipiviṭa named


arya: śamsāmi vayunāni vidn /

of-the-lord i-extol sacred-rules knowing



6.59.3 indrā nu ag avasā iha

Indra now Agni with-help here


vajriṇā vayam de havāmahe

2-mace-holders we Gods we-call-invoke



1.18.8 ād ṛdhnoti havikṛtim pcam kṛṇoti adhvaram /

and-then he-makes-successful preparation-of-the-oblation forward makes sacrifice

pres. pres.


9.78.1 pra cam janayan asiyadad

forth king speech producing has-flown

nom pap Ao.

apa: vasāna: abhi iyakati /

waters wearing towards cows approaches

acc. pap pres.

gṛbhṇāti ripram avi: asya nvā

grabs impurities strainer by-his-fleece


śuddha: denām upa yāti nikṛtam //

cleansed of-Gods goes meeting

nom. sing. pres.


9.86.8 samudram nadya: vi gāhate

king ocean rivers apart plunges


am ūrmin sacate sindhuu śrita:

of-waters wave follows in-streams hidden



4.17.10 ya satyam kṛṇute manyum indra:

when real does anger-rage Indra


viśvam dṛlham bhayata ejad asmāt //

every firm becomes-afraid moving from-him



9.86.47 yad gobhi: inda: camvo: samajyasa

when with-cows O drop in-soma-vessels be-brought-togeather


ā suvāna: soma kalaśeu sīdasi //

at be-extracted O Soma in-pitchers sit-down



9.67.21 yad anti yat ca durake bhayam vindati m iha /

which near and which far fear finds me here


pavamāna vi tat jahi //

O Pavamana apart that smite-destroy

pres. imperative


1.55.2 sa: arṇava: na nadya: samudriya:

he waves like rivers ocean


prati gṛbhṇāti viśritā varīmabhi: /

against takes diffused with-widths

pres. acc.

indra: somasya taye vṛāyate

Indra of-soma to-drink be-eager

Inf. pres.

sat sa: yudhma: ojasā panasyate //

from-old he warrior with-strenght exite-admiration



7.88.5 kva tni nau sakh: babvu:

where those of-our friendships has-become


sacāvahe yad avṛkam pura cit /

we2-associate when without-enmity formerly even



7.56.23 bri cakra maruta: pitryāṇi uktni

many make O Maruts of-the-fathers praises


va: śasyante pu cit

which for-you be-recited formerly even



6.65.4 i hi va: vidhate ratnam asti

now for-worshiping-you wealth be

pap. dat. pres.

i ya śua uśāsa: /

now for-liberal-hero O Uas


i viprāya jarate yad ukt

now for-poet when (he)sings songs-of-praise


ni ma vate vahathā pu cit //

to always to-one-like-me you-all-bring wealth formerly

dat. pres.