2 worlds      

                                     objective       ‘out there’                      

                                     subjective      ‘in the mind’         needs an ‘ awake me’


                                     the mind concerned with     outer things

                                     the mind concerned with    ‘ inner things ‘


                                     consciousness  interfacing  with the manifest

                                     consciousness  interfacing  with  the  transcendent


            2  minds




                                   supramental  consciousness  ?

                                          a  worthwhile   adventure   i   think


                     what  is  consciousness  anyway  ?

                            without knowing why  i   assume  that   it’s  a  flawed   question


                      does  our  brain  generate the electricity   that  lites  our  light  bulb

                            or   is  our  brain  some  kind  of   an  antennae    for   consciousness


                       we  certainly   need   a   healthy  functioning  brain   to   ‘ feel  it ‘

                       scientific  instruments  can  pinpoint   the  prefrontal cortex  as  the  place

                             where  our  conscious  activities  takes  place

                                   like  meditation,  mindfulness,  decisions,  planning,  making  sentences,  feeling  awake

                       our  brain  is  involved   with  consciousness

                                   either       actively   or    passively                 



                  the working memory function of  our  mind

                     can  distinguish   around    7  elements 

                         7    rainbow  colors

                         7    notes  of  scale

                         7     declensions   

                         7    digit  phone number

                                  7   aorists

                                  7    present  system   classes

                                              1,    4,     6

                                              2,    3,     7,       5 and 9                no         8  and  10    in  Vedic


                         trying to discover  the  7  distinctions  of the present system   seems  reasonable

                                      each  class   probably  having  its   own   semantic  color

                       the  aorist  and  present system   are  probably  processed  in  the  working memory 

                                        ( equating    the  7  thing  with  working memory )

                            sentences  coming up from the subconscious   are  processed  differently

                                   the  working memory  constructs  conscious   sentences  or  phrases

                                          we  think in  phrases


               Vedic  verbs  are  unique  in  that  they  are  difficult  to   memorize                   

                        there  are  too  many  verbal   variations   (thousands)

                              especially   if  you  were  to  say   anything  very  meaningful

                                    phrases ,  particularly  verbs      need  to be  created-constructed   when  spoken       

                                          Vedic  may  be  a  Conscious  language

                                               the  prefrontal cortex  needing  to  be  engaged 

                                                    as  opposed  to the subconscious  being  the  generator  of  thoughts




                            working  memory      -         memory in the   CPU       -     immediate   memory

                            short  term  memory   -       memory  in        RAM       -      today

                            long  term   memory   -       memory   on      Hard Drive


      i  believe  that  in  our  prefrontal cortex,   we  have   special  function

               known  as  Working Memory.   At  its  core  is  the  Central  Executive

                       this  is  where  we  can  consciously  make  sentences        

                               where    we   can  experience  being  Awake

                                        where   we  meditate

           the  subject  of  ancient    Vedic   poetry,  i  believe

                an  unique  view  -  4200 years  ago -  a  different  prospective

                        a very different  world view,   culture

          but    some  human  experiences   are  equivalent   -  such  as

               when  the  mind  is    [ quiet,  alert,  aware ]     in  the   here  and  now     kind of thing

                       we    share   a   common  experience

                              a  universal  human   experience,    a  state  of  mind

                       that  the   Rig Veda  is  describing   this  common-universal   experience

                              is  reasonable  because     they ,    i  think ,    are  describing 

                                     a  state  of  mind

                                             a   special   state  of  mind

                                                    and  one  shared  by   humans  of  all  times

                         simply                       being   consciously  awake    in  the  Present  Moment

                               it    by-passes      beliefs ,  descriptions ,   and   interpretations

                       this  clean  ‘state  of  mind‘  is    basic  philosophy,    psychology,    meditation

                                   a   basic  human  experience ,   enhanced   with   regular  meditation 

                      this  could  be  the  rosetta stone  into  the  proto-indo-european   mind

                                   a  mind  that   change   the    world



               when  i  say  a  word  to you   like      ‘ romance ‘

                   it  feels  like  the  meaning  of  the  word  goes  with  it

                   but     ( except  for  some  body  language stuff )

                          nothing  goes  but  the  symbol

                   my   mind-structure  generated  the  symbol

                   i   send  it   to   you

                           your  mind  generates    your  meaning   of  the  symbol

                   ‘ can a  woman ever be understood ‘

               2   communicating   computers  use   web browsers   to  do  the  work  on  both  ends

                       one  receives   the   symbols  and  builds   up  the  intention

                       unlike  humans ,    the  web browsers   are  identical

                the  more  unlike  2   mind-structures   are

                       the  more  difficult   the  understanding

                if  the  Rig Veda  is  talking  about  a  natural  state  of  mind

                       the   meditative   state  of  mind   (  quiet,  alert, aware ) in the  present  moment – kind of thing

                then  the   Rosetta  Stone  analogy   might  work


                the  Proto Indo-European  language  is  with  us  today  ( most  strongly  in  Vedic )

                but   their  culture   is  a  mystery -  a  different   mind-structure,  web  browser



                            Vedic   and  classical Sanskrit  are  different 


                a  verb   has   many  variations

                           prefix          augment

                           root                      internal  ablout          strong-weak         reduplication      

                           derivational  stem  suffixes                

                           thematic      a

                           voice                                                 3 voices

                           moods                                              5   modes

                           person    number      sex                  9   persons,   3  numbers,  3  sexes

                           present  -  aorist  -  perfect               7  presents,   7  aorists,     1  perfect



                The  sheer  number  of  combinations   suggest  that  a  verb  must  be     constructed

                                on  the  fly  -   consciously                    not   from  memory

                speaking  Vedic   took  effort  ,   presence   and   education



                    is  there  a  soul  ‘ in there ‘   that  is looking out  of  the eyes  and directly  experiencing  the world 

                             or   is    information  in  the  form  of  photons

                                       entering   the  eye  and  going  through numerous  neurons and  synapses,

                                               cognized  in some way  by the brain  and  ’seen’  moments  later

                                               synapses  have  molecules  moving  through  liquid  (delay)                                                         

                        so  instead  of direct experience,  there  is  a  delay

                             an hundred mph  baseball   is  really   some  inches  ahead  of  where  it’s  seen

                                the brain  is  always  a little behind

                       to  Experience  you  need  a  working  brain

                                hundreds of millions  of  firing  neurons

                        how could  direct experience be possible ? 

                               what   is    direct experience  anyway  ?

                               how  could  you  ever  describe  it  ?

                               the  brain  would  always be  a  few  steps behind 

                    it  sure  seems  like  we  are  looking  out  of   our  eyes

                        philosophers   of  old  mistakenly   thought  this

                        but   science  tells  us   that   the  eyes  are  receptors

                        this  process   of  seeing   has  been  thoroughly   studied  and  is   well  understood



                   the  older parts  of  the Rig Veda ,  I think ,  have  an  unique   perspective 

                          without  defining  or  speculating    ,     they  sought

                   happiness  and  health   of  a  clear-alert  mind    through  meditation

                           their  meditation  uses the  working  memory  of  our  prefrontal cortex

                   agni  ( conscious thinker ) could  work  within  the  1 or 2  second  window   to    set  the  table ‘

                                  with  indra  being  the  ‘ central  executive ‘   could  zap  incoming  thoughts

                                          thus  maintaining   the     here  and  now  moment ‘     as

                                               a  flood  of  wonderful  energy  and  happiness    flowed ,  sashayed

                                  the  other  divinities   being   emotions,   feelings,         maybe

                                  Bhavani  brought  up   an interesting point

                                             can you have feelings when you’re in the here and now  ?


                                 so instead  of  shooting  for  the  direct experience  of    Now     ( or  an explanation )

                                 we  might  seek  the happiness  given  by   the  little     n       now 

                                      provided  by   a  clear ,  alert ,  focused  mind   in   meditation

                                 nothing  supernatural,   no promises of  life  after death,   just  clean experience

                                       using   a  regular practice

                                              voicing   the   desire  and  respect  for   meditation


                   for  those believing  in  science   this  theory  of   older  Vedic  thought  has  potential



                    Information  Theory   talks  about  how     information

                           has  a  life  and  energy  of  its  own

                    ideas  (  packages  of  information,  memes )  when  successful

                         can  live and  replicate  in  many  minds   for  years

                   how  many  words, sentences  and  ideas  of  mine  have  been  learned

                                    all  of  them  ?

                   living  in  the  world  of  language   may  be  inauthentic

                   the  present  moment  may  be  the  glowing  jewel  for  an  authentic  experience

                                     not  quite   the  direct  experience  of  Now      but


                   the  brain  is  much  too  active  for  a person   to  stay focused   in  the  present  moment  for  long

                          too much control  may even be unhealthy  for  the  brain  and mind

                   the  Rig Veda  talks  about   a   regular  Meditative  practice  where

                         the  glowing  jewel  of  happiness,  health  and  clarity   can  be  enjoyed

                                and  one  can  authentically  be 

                                         alert ,  aware ,  in the  moment ,  without  thoughts 



       Vedic verbs


             2 minds





                  universal  time -  things  happen in this world whether  we’re  here  or  not

                  inner  personal   time -   the  only  real  tense  is  the  present  moment

                                                        the  world  seen  from  my  waking  moment

                                                        my  mind  seen   from  this  waking  moment


           time ,  aspect , mood   may be represented  differently  regarding    the    2  views     2minds 


          some  describe  the  Vedic   verbal  system   as  having

                      2 tenses

                                    past    -    non-past

                      3  aspects

                                   perfect  -  retrospective – state

                                   aorist    -   perfective  -    completed  event

                                   imperfective   -   present, imperfect   -    incomplete, continued, repeating  events

                      4 or 5  moods

                                   indicative,   imperative,   injunctive,   optative,   subjunctive 

                      2 or 3  voices

                                   active,     middle,     passive    is probably a function of middle class 4



                   nouns     represent   descriptions    of   different  types of  individuals  and  substances

                   verbs      represent   descriptions    of   different  types  of   situations-events  



                  a    root            has  a  large    scope             a general  meaning

                           affix,   suffix,   ablaut, , ,      causative,     desiderative,   intensive,    voice

                                                    brings   intention   to focus         restricts   meaning      but

                           without   knowing    context        good  luck    finding  what  was  Meant

                                       how  would you know,  if you found  the correct   context.                                                          

                                               the  older  half  of  the  Rig Veda   gives  an obscure      context



                                                                                      kṛ                                               cit

                                                          present stem                                      aorist stem                                   perfect stem

          present                                     kṛ-ṇo-ti                        ----                       ci-ket-a

          past                                          a-kṛ-ṇo-t                    a-kar-t                   a-ci-ket-t

          injunctive                                  kṛ-ṇo-t                        kar-t                      ci-ket-t

          subjunctive                               kṛ-ṇav-a-t (i)              kar-a-t (i)               ci-ket-a-t (i)

          optative                                    kṛ-ṇu--t                   kur--t                  ci-kit--t

          imperative                                kṛ-ṇu-hi                      kṛ-dhi                      ci-kid-dhi


      ablout       internal  vowel   change,  indicating         aspect

                        zero  grade           kṛ             present / imperfect

                        guna                     kar           aorist

                        vṛitti                      ke             perfect


        zero              a,  -                       i,  ī                          u,   ū                        ṛ,   ṛṛ

        guna             a,  ai                     ai   (e)                     au    (o)                    ar

      vṛddhi             ā,  āi                     āi   (ai)                    āu    (au)                  ār


       in Vedic     e = ai                       o = au                    ai = āi                   au - āu





                     probably will happen,     let it happen,  may it happen,   desire, 

                    wish,    want,   command,   request,  advice,  a direction,  shall,  should,

                    might,  must

                    probability    possibility    necessity  

                    ( speakers attitude )  to the content  of a  proposition  or  possible worlds

                    language doesn’t  just  pinpoint and relate sitituations  but

                          can  propose  multiple   possible  situations


         the  indicative   is  probably  dealing  with  the  objective   world

         the  other   moods   are  more    subjective         personal



                          subjunctive                        in assertive  clauses

                                                    expresses  future  probability

                                                    probable  state  of  affairs

                                                    doubts,   fears,   predictions,   hypothetical or guarded  statements



                                                   is a finite verb whose only grammatical features are

                                                            aspect               present / aorist / perfect

                                                            voice                 middle / passive

                                                            person / number          with secondary, non-present endings

                                                            not marked   for   tense / mood


                                                   completed action irrespective of tense or mood

                                                   usually  in  main clause        that

                                                              follows  a verb ( in subordinate clause ) that gives  tense / mood

                                                    except for     prohibitions  with      

                                                              injunctives don’t occur by themselves,  they follow  tense / mood  verbs

                                                    rarely  in  subordinate  clauses

                                                    rarely  in  recent past

                                                     tense / mood  is supplied by Context or other words


                                                           ca          can join different verbs in same  tense/mood

                                                                                or       same  verb   with different  tense/mood

                                                           but      injunctive   can  conjoin  with  different  verbs in any tense/mood

                                                    imperfect  advances  narrative,  injunctive   tells  ‘wrong’  sequence




                                                    command,    requests,    prohibitions


                                                    wishes,    choices,    preferences     


                                                   make statements,    recount facts,



                    a single event,  repetitive, continual,  instant,  duration,   finished,

                    witnessed,  remote,  simple,  complex,  temporary, permanent

                     recent,    immediate,  just happened,  state a fact,



                    now a days,       we   see   Time in terms of    ‘ past,  present,  future ‘

                    linguists say,     Aryans   saw  Time in terms of    ‘ past  and non-past ‘

                    but      say

                              ‘ it’s always been now and will always be now ‘

                                      then  the  only ‘ time ‘  is  now 

                    the  past  may be more like  a  memory ,  not  a  different  time

                    they  might  be using  2  different  time  systems

                                  universal    (  there  is  one  time  in the universe )             objective

                                  mental       (  time  is  seen  as  the  present moment )      subjective


                    the  modern  Linguistic  concept of time may be regarded  as a path structure,    i.e.

                          as  a structure  consisting  of a strictly ordered  infinite  set of immediately adjacent intervals,

                                    all of which  are connected by one and only one sub path

                    directed       only  one direction




                          today  Ce  said  that  her   foremost  desire   is     happiness

                                            not  ‘ i want to be happy ‘       but        happiness



             once    you  leave   the  present  moment   and  dive  into  language

                   you  find  yourself   in   the  world   of

                           a brain-mind  structured   and  programmed   by  culture

                           human  traits   inherited   from  evolution   and  natural  selection

                   can  philosophy  be   done  in  language  ?


                   a  loaded  or religious question  like ‘ do you believe  in  god ? ‘

                   one  might  answer    i   neither  believe  nor  disbelieve  in   x 





            2    types of verbs

                              State       -   perfect     (state of being)  ( completed action, still relevant )  looking back


                              Event      -   perfective – aorist   ( completed action, an entire process )

                                            -    imperfective   -  present tense – imperfect tense

                                                                        ( ongoing, repeated, habitual   action )


                                Primary  verbs -   from roots

                                Secondary  verbs  -   from root stem  -  from nouns -  Present System verbs

                                                          causative, intensive, desiderative, denominative

                                                          not conjugated  in the  Subjunctive or Optative  moods


        binary opposition

                            present vs. past     

                            subjective proximate vs. objective proximate

                            narrative vs. statement of fact

                            active voice  -    middle voice


                           subjective     vs.    objective

                           imperfective  vs.  perfective

                                      marked by primary vs. secondary endings

                                                  mi,  si,  ti      -----    m,    s,    t




                    immediately before or after now                    

                    now relating  to events  in this waking   day

                    now   relating to events in my  life time

                    objective time           linear

                    subjective time          in the mind       is seen from now      from speaker

                    time parameters       (  Reichenbach  )

1.     E   -     event  time,   the time during which the event unfolds -  run  time

2.     R   -     reference  time,   the  time  referred  to -  spoken  about

3.     P   -     perspective  time,  the  ‘ now ‘  point  -     evaluation  time

4.     S   -     speech  time,   the actual  moment of utterance


             present           E    included  in   R,      P   included in   R

                                    past  perfect           E   precedes  R    precedes  P

                               present  perfect           E   precedes  R,    P   is included in  R

                                         imperfect           R   precedes  P

                                              aorist            E   precedes  Rr    

                                                                               r =   ?  recent past      current  relevance          resultive


               ‘ Julia  arrived ‘                    simple  past

               ‘ Julia   has  arrived ‘           present  perfect

                       you   would  think  that  there  were  only  2  time  parameters     Event Time   and  Speech Time

                       but no,  there  is a third.    Reference  Time  (  time spoken about )

                              ‘ Julia arrived ‘               happened  before  Speech Time

                                                                       E and R  precedes  S

                              ‘ Julia  has  arrived ‘       happened  before  and  overlaps  with  Speech Time

                                                                      E   and  R   includes  S

                          ‘ At midnight last night,  Julia arrived, kissed Margaret, had a glass of wine, and went to bed.

                                        E  times  are  included  in R  time


                  Aspect   =   a type of relation  between   E    and   R

                  Tense    =                                               R    and    P / S



                            Present       P   includes   R         evaluation / perspective  time    includes    reference  time

                            Past            R   precedes  P


                            Imperfective    (  present,  imperfect past )   R    includes   E

                            Perfective  ( aorist )       E   includes  R        event time  includes  reference time

                            Anterior   ( perfect )       E   partially  includes  R

                            Neutral                          R   overlaps  E



                 Present tense  and  Aorist  aspect   are rarely  used together


                  A meaningful  verb phrase   needs   both   Aspect   operators   and   Tense operators


             the   Perfect  is not used for  narration       because

                     R    is included  in   P

                     even though the  Perfect  places  an event in the past,

                          a sequence of perfects  cannot provide the secessions of    R   times  that

                                      (drives the narrative forward)  because the R times  overlap

                                       one  event  does not precede  the other -  they  share  same  P  time

            the   Imperfect   is  used  for  narration

                     each   past  tense   has  its  own   R   time

                                they   all   precede     P

                                each  reset  R  time   includes  a  new  E   time  -  successive  events

            the  Imperfect  is  also used  for  ‘ remote past ‘ ,   elsewhere


           the   Aorist    is  restricted  to  recent  past  in virtue of  its  resultative  meaning


          Aorist   is  restricted  to telic  ( complete )  verbs,        resultative in character,       E  precedes   R

                          you can make an  atelic  verb   Aorist   by  adding   s    -       s  aorist   -   perfectivizing


          Verb  roots  can be grouped  into  3  Aktionsart  types

1.    Resultative  ( aorist )    accomplishment        achievement

       vṛt      turn                     vṛdh     grow             sthā    stand up         skand   leap

       krand   cry out               hṛ    take                  bhū    become           dyut     flash

       bhī    become scared    budh   wake up        vap   strew

       jan   be born                  ram   calm  down     tyaj   leave


2.    Irresultative              state                 process

      as    be                           vas    dwell                śī    lie                         ās    lie

      ī      move                      i   desire                  bhā   shine                     blow

      rud   weep                      plu   float                   jiv   live


3.    Resultative / irresultative

        bhar    bring, carry        kram   step             ruh   climb         dhāv   run             cleanse



         aspectual  contrast  between  Aorist  and  non-aorist  Injunctives    appears  in prohibitions

               preventive  prohibitions   take       Aorist  injunctive

               inhibitive    prohibitions   take        Present / Imperfect   injunctive


                             pa   gā:

                       don’t  go  away        addressed  to someone  who  is  present

                                                        Ao.  inj.

                        akai:       dīvya:

                        don’t  gamble  ( any more )     addressed  to a gambler





                   an event    Martha cooked pizza.    Can be easily understood.

                   a  mental event  -    not  so easy

                            in Vedic times,  how would they describe a mental event ?

                             or mental  time parameters ?


                            they didn’t mention ‘ life after death ‘   or  ‘ soul ‘

                            religions  promise  ‘ life after death ‘

                                    when the body dies, the soul floats off   somewhere

                                             each religion has their own ‘ where ‘




      Ascending time

             Universal time.   Began 13.7 billion years ago 

                    the Present,   a dimensionless point moves across this background  linearly


     Descending time

                The background moves across the  ‘Ever present Now’

                 The memories established here move further and further into the past

                 The beginning is Now


    Vedic          is a      Descending Time  language,                    subjuctive     event  time

                      and      Ascending    Time                                    objective  


    Classical Sanskrit           is  an  Ascending Time  language,        universal time

                                           sees  mental  events  as  part of     the objective world



     Grammatical  aspect

                           Defines    time flow    of  event or state   from point of view  of speaker

                                 is it bounded ( beginning and end ) , without reference to time flow during situation.

                                           she spanked me          aorist

                                 or  unbounded  with reference  to time flow  during  situation

                                           she  was spanking me  -  she  used to spank me        imperfect


    Lexical  aspect   -   aktionsart



                                                A | B -----------C------------D | E


                     A     subject   in a position                 before    event   (  prospective aspect )

                     B     subject   in a position at the beginning  of event  ( inceptive aspect )

                     C     subject     with event                       in progress   ( progressive  aspect )

                     D     subject     in position  of completing  the event    ( perfective  aspect, aorist )

                     E      subject  in a position    after     event                  ( perfect-retrospective  aspect )



      English                 aspect                                          non-past                                          past tense


                          performative                                     i speak                                              i spoke

                          progressive                                  i am  speaking                                  i  was  speaking

                          retrospective                                 i have spoken                                     i had spoken

                          prospective                                      i will speak                                       i would speak


            tense  systems represent past and future as  Universe Time

                            vast stretches of time that contain   events


            aspect   represents  past  and future  in terms  of   Event  Time

                            time   with-in  the      Event


           present  Perfect  aspect,     event  represented by the past participle  only indicates

                             a past event   because it is seen retrospectively  from  the  Present     


          past  tense ,  on the other hand,   represents  event  contained  in past time

                                 is  separate and apart from  the  Present





                      universal time,     time that contains the Event

                      location in time

                      characterizes  the narrated event with reference to the speech event

                      tenses  are  typically  deictic  ‘ depends on context for meaning ‘

                                      in that   they relate time points to a moment of speech



                       is  not  concerned with relating the time of the situation to any other  time-point

                                    but  rather  with the internal  time  with-in   event     -     Event Time

                                                    time  contained  in the  Event

                       characterizes  the narrated  event without  reference to speech event                    

                       nature of action – kind of action


                       describes manner in which an   action – change of state – condition   is regarded by the speaker

                       time that is contained in the Event

                       relationship between described situation and  time spoken about

                       speakers perspective on the internal time structure of a situation

                       type of action


                       temporal   structure

                       perfective aspect  --  completed situations

                       imperfective aspect  --  in progress  situations


                               own 3 slaves,      have known  32  ladies

                *       change of state

                                fight       -   process

                                defeat   -   change-of-state             has a  completion

                *      dynamic --  progress through time

                                 hate     -     state               remains  constant

                                 walk    -     dynamic          evolves  through time

                                                  often  used  with  adverbs  like  ‘ quickly ‘

                *      punctual  --  instantaneous

                                  come,  win    -     durative          achievement

                                  astonish        -     punctual         instantaneous  achievement

                *     single event

                                   know     happens   once

                                   kiss       happens  frequently



                        relation between reference time and event time

                                tense  --  between  reference time and local evaluation time

·      Imperfective aspect      ( present,   imperfect )

              Reference time includes event time

                       ‘when I knocked on the door,  she was reading’

                       ‘ when I was reading, she entered’

                       ‘ he is dying ‘      action occurring  in the present or in the past

·      Perfective aspect         ( aorist )

              Completed event  before speech time, but still holds

                     Event time included in reference time

                        ‘ I lived in Sadona and then went in exile to Chicago’

                        ‘ he likes women who have winked at him’

                        ‘ to die ‘       action as a whole         an occurrence in the past

·      Perfect  aspect          ( perfect )

              Event time partially precedes or co-exists with reference time

                        ‘ I have lived in Chicago for a year, having moved from Sadona’

                        ‘ the thief must have entered, using the back door’

                        ‘ she started walking because she was late’

                        ‘ to be dead ‘          occurred  and effecting the present

·      Neutral aspect

               General overlap between event time and reference

                        ‘ while he was dying,  his gaze fell on her’

                        ‘ suddenly I knew that something was wrong’


                 The action of a verb can be seen from different perspectives


                          Subjective         the feelings of a subject

                                                    prospective – introspective - retrospective

                               usually      Perfect


     Objective           ingressive – progressive – egresive

                               seen  in its continuity,  at some point in its development

                               initial point end point ,   took place once or repeated

                               had an end or result

                               can be complete or incomplete, durative, inchoative, cursive,

                                     terminative  or  iterative,  habitual,  intensive


meaning  =  form  and  function

                     meaning  not only comes from verb form but also    Context



                     aspectual meaning may depend on





                                meaning of the verb-stem itself

                                adverb-prepositional modifiers

                                transitive -  intransitive

                                secondary verb-stems,      causative – denominative – desiderative - intensive 


                 4   functions

                             recent  past                          main  clause         in the indicative       

                             relating  to prior  event          in  subordinate  clause                   

                             statement  of fact                 usually with imperfects  in reporting  narration

                                                                                      with injunctives   in  mentioning

                             perfective  aspect ,  telic,   completed event    -    in  non-finite and modal verb forms                    

                              non-finite =  not limited  by a subject

                                                 missing-  tense / aspect / mood / number / gender / person

                                                  can’t  stand alone as  main verb

                                                  infinitives , participles , gerunds,     ‘ing

                                                  such as        to do,    doing



                   aorist and perfect       divide   the readings of the  English perfect

1.    Resultative:           The  police  have  caught the suspect  in  Seattle.   ( aorist )

2.    Universal:              I   have known  Rebekah  since  2011.                      ( perfect )

3.    Existential:             Rebekah  has been to  India.                                     ( perfect )

4.    Recent past:         Terry  has woken up  in  Chapel Hill  at age  39.           ( aorist )

5.    Stative  Present:    I’ve  got (= I have)  something to tell  you.                  ( perfect )


1.    Resultative     reading      also  called   state  reading

        accomplishment    predicates        such  as    catch,   hide

                consists  of an activity  leading to a change of state

        achievement     predicates                          die,  arrive

                denotes  an  event  consisting  of a  change of state

        ‘ I have finally  realized that she was a lesbian. ‘


2.    Existential   reading      also known as the   experiential  reading

        is obtained  when the whole event denoted by

              a continuing ( atelic ) or repeated ( telic ) events      are  contained  in   E

               Rebekah  visited India  one or more times  during a period  E

                        extending  from some past time up to time  R,  but not currently visiting

          I  have  often thought that she was a lesbian ‘


3.    Universal   reading     or  continuing reading

         i continue to know Rebekah  from  2011 up to  R

          needs an  adverb      always,  since

        ‘ I  have  always known that she was a lesbian ‘


4.    Recent past

              situates an event at a time which verges on P time

                     and locates  the result state at  P


5.    Present  state

              reference  interval is included  in the resulted state

              change of state is not assigned a time  but remains implicit



   Perfect        anterior  aspect

                                       partially precedes – co-extensive   with  Reference Time

                   overlaps  with  speech time          ‘ she arrived ‘

                   past perfect   selects a past time  as its evaluation time

                   present perfect    reference time overlaps with evaluation time

                   past completed action    still   relevant


                   situation that is obtained as a result of an event

                   aspectually  stative and presuppose a prior  event.

                   a state  or  achievement    resulting  from a previous  event

                   actions of varying completion that in some manner affect the present

                   completed action with a continuing effect



                   achievement verb  -  stative presents

                          predicates only the state itself, not the change of state that brought it about

                          has   strictly  present time  reference

                          coordinated  with  present tense verbs

                  imperfects  denote  individual / collective ( single-event )  continuing

                  perfects  denote   distinct multiple events

          stative  presents   such as

                veda,  ciketa  ‘ knows ‘  ( from vid, cit  ‘ find out ‘ ),    jujoa  ‘ enjoys ‘,      cakāna  ‘ likes’,

                bibhāya  ‘ fears ‘,            taṭhau  ‘ stands ‘,               śiśrāya  ‘ rests on “,

                dadhāra  ‘ holds ‘,           ānaśa  ‘ has ‘,                     babhva   ‘ is ’


ye   cid   dhi   rva       ṛtapa       āsan

our-ancestors-who-after-all    truth-seeking   were-committed  


  ka   devebhi:   avadan     ni

       together  with-Gods  spoke    truths


   te   cid   avāsur   nahi   antam   āpu:

       they   even   ceased-stopped    not   end   reached



 uru    kayāya    cakrire

      wide   homeland   they-made  themselves

                                           perf.                                            1.36.8

they conquered ( imperf.  ataran )  heaven, earth, and the waters



upa:   ruruce   yuvatir   na   yoā

Dawn    forth   has-shone    young  like  woman

                                         perf.                                                                                             7.77.1



putra:   kaṇvasya   m   iha   suāva   somiyam   madhu

  son  of-Kanva      for-you   here    has-pressed    somic   juice

come here Gods  for                                                                             perf.                             8.8.4 






  used  for  narrating  sequences  of past events,  and picks  out a specific,

                                  localized  past time of the historical or remote past.        



  Aorist                four main uses


         1.    In non- inflected- non-finite    -    infinitives, gerunds

                       and in   Moods    -        inj.  subj.  imp.   opt.            it marks ‘perfective aspect’

                       non-indicative    distinct  events         telic


                2.   ind.      in main  clause      marks  -  immediate past –


                             vasan   araṅyānm   yam   akrukad   iti   manyate

                                   staying    in-forest    at-night   that someone just screamed             one-imagines

                                                                                                                                                              Ao.                                       pres.



       citram  denām  ud agād  anīkam  āprā  dvāpṛthivī   antarikam

                             the-bright  of-Gods  has-risen   face,  it-has-filled  heaven-earth-middle region 

                                                                                                       Ao.                                       Ao.                                             1.115.1


                3.  marks  relative  prior  events  of  subordinate clause


                      viśve  desa:  amadan   anu  tvā  śuṇam  piprum  kuyavaṃ   

                      all-Gods            cheered         you 


                       vṛtram  indra  yavadhi:  vi  pura:  śambarasya

                                  O Indra    when-you-had-smashed    forts  of-Shambarasa

                                                                                                                Ao.                                                         1.103.7 


                                   ugram  ayātam   avaha:   ha     kutsaṃ

                                  to-the-terrible-one   you2-went,  you2-took     Kutsa

                                                                                                              imperf.                             imperf.

                                     saṃ  ha  yad  vām  uśanāranta  de:

                                           together   when  you-all   with-Uśanā  had-united   Gods

                                                                                                 acc.                                                            Ao.                        5.31.8   


                            savanaṃ   viver   apa:   yathā   pu    manave   tum   aśret   

                                                  oblation   has-fulfilled   its-purpose      as  formerly   for-Manu   way   prepared

                                                                                     inj.                                                                                                                       acc.            Ao.        10.76.3




4.      statement of fact

                                   imperfect ‘ reports narration ‘      injunctive ‘ mentions ‘

                                   here  Aorist  amidst imperfects,  carries the story forward, summarizes, or comments upon.


                            satbhava:   vasupatir   vasūnāṃ

                           totally   you-have-become    wealth-lord    of-wealth


                      datre   viśvā   adhithā   indra   kṛṭi:

                                with-their-portion    all     you-have-put-supplied   O Indra   people                      

                                                     dative                                                                          Ao.



    4.52.1                    prati  diva:  adarśi  duhi

                             the daughter of heaven  appeared (once)


   8.47.18                            yasmād  duvapnyād  abhaimāpa  tad  uchatu

                          let her drive away with her light the evil dream that we feared





               6.7.3      tvad   vipra:   jāyate   vāji    agne

                                  from-you   poet     is-born   prize-winner    O Agni


                       yabhyate      is-fucked


     class 4                                intransitive      change of state

                        tvāyā   vipra:    jāyate

                       by-you    poet  is-born


                        yabh      fuck         yabhyate             intransitive ?                 



      a  completed  event   as  opposed  to a divided event

         has boundaries –  discrete – completed events  located in the immediate  past

         situations  included in reference time

         doesn’t refer to time of action, instead  describes  action’s state of completion or singularity

         a completed, singular action

         has  no  part that is outside the reference time

         event  has been terminated prior  to speech time

         no exact notion  of  duration

         event happened at some indefinite time in the past

         punctual,    monentary,  instantaneous

         to see – to look,   to find – to search,    to hear – to listen

                first one is Aorist – singular, momentary, finite action, a beginning and end

                second on is  Imperfect – ongoing process, repeated, habitual

                                            cannot be isolated to one moment or action

          reference time is contained in the event

          emphasizes  a state resulting from the completion  of event, still holds at speech time

          event time    cannot  last longer then  reference time



               The Vedic Aorist often expresses actions or processes ‘which have occurred

             in the past with reference  to the present.

                Immediate past

                Not so much ‘I did the action but I was effected by the action.

                Imperfect -- continuance

                Perfect – completeness

                Aorist   deals with neither  continuance or completeness

                            rarely  state or activity verbs  or change-of-state  or imperfective

                            momentaneous,  no durational – punctual-factual,  single event

                perfect  --  state a fact                  

                aorist  --  statement of fact        proximate past

                imperfect  --  narration          distant past                       

                aorist inj.  Prohibitive --   situation stops before now

                present inj.  Prohibitive  --   situation  stops  in the present

                is the meaning of a sentence, determined by its constituents ??

                tense, aspect, mood   are prime constituents

               desiderative   are usually  state  verbs , having few Aorist stems      

               past progressive    reference time  included in event time

                                             ‘ I was winning the race ‘

               Simple past           ‘ I won the race ‘


       Present system

                          ongoing  action,    not complete,  durative,  continuative

                          does not say anything about its completed nature

               in the old days        each Class probably had its own aspectual significance

                              thematic       1,  4,  6

                              athematic      2,  3,  5,  7,  9               5 and 9   may be sisters

               Class  3       may signify   the       iterative

                                   jigāmi          i make step after step       i am walking



   accented  nouns

                          strong declensions =   nom.    acc.

                          weak  declensions =    inst.     dat.     abl.    gen.   loc.

                if   noun has  ‘ underlying ‘  accent,    it  keeps  the   stress

                if    no   ‘ underlying ‘  accent

                           strong ending  -  syllable immediately preceding it      takes stress

                           weak  ending  -   stress  is in   ending


                      marut                                      vac

            marut         marutas                       k          ca:

          marutam      maruta:                       cam      ca:

          maru         marudbhi:                            vāgbhi:

          marute         marudbhya:                 ce        vāgbhya:

          maruta:        marudbhya:                 ca:       vāgbhya:

          maruta:        marutām                      ca:       cam

          maruti          marutsu                        ci         vākṣu


            vocative   is unstressed - except   sentence-initial,    first  syllable    stressed

            if   no  ‘ underlying ‘   accent -   first syllable   receives   stress




   accent    verbs

              main  clause         verbs   unaccented              except

                        1. all  sentence – initial   or  pāda – initial    words  are  accented

                            contiguous   verbs       second verb is accented   ( considered new sentence )

                            words between verbs ( belong to first verb )   second verb is accented   ( new sentence )

                            verbs  preceded by    sentence – initial  Vocatives      are accented


                         2.   verb  accented   when  immediately preceding   id        indicates  emphasis


              subordinate   clause     

                          1.    verbs    accented


             antithetical  clause       

                         1.     first verb usually accented        anya – anya          ca  -  ca            vā - vā  


             etā       2nd  pl.  imp.      come

                         1.   when following this verb in a clause         accented


                        clitic  elements  tend  to follow the  sentence – initial  accented  word


            with   Vocative-initial  words,    first  syllable  gets  accent          agni    instead of   agni  

                     Vocatives   are   usually   unaccented


            enclitics     are    unaccented

                      ( enclitic -  depends on  preceeding  word )

            iva        ‘like’    unaccented,  it follows  the word with which the comparison is made.  treated as  suffix 



      Vedic clause

                    Assertive clause -  knowledge shared by speaker and hearer -  common ground

                    Directive clause -  knowledge should be realized  by hearer – putting in order

                    Interrogative clause -  mutually agree to attempt to answer - possibility



                   The  perfect characteristically expresses the condition attained by the subject

              as the result of a preceding action.

                  If that action (often a repeated or continuous one ) is continued into the

              present so as to include the latter,  it may be translated by the Present ;

                 if it is regarded as concluded before the present,  by the Present Perfect.




               e  and  o    were  dipthongs      ai   and   au

               ai   and   au    were   hiatus.   2  syllables    āi     and   āu

               Vedic  can have two  ajoining   vowels

                      was not      ri       probably more like  the  r   in   butter

               dentals           articulated  from the root of the teeth

               may not have had  retroflex

               voiceless fricatives  before   P   and   K                    : P      fP                  : K   velar




                        alternating with       imperative      in  commands and requests

          8.17.1        pi    imam,    edam    barhi:    sada:    mama

                               drink   this       on-this    grass        sit          my

                                   imp.                                                                                       inj.


                    alternates  with          subjunctives         in prospective   function

         7.86.2          ka   nu   antar   varuṇe   bhuvāni

                             when   now   near   in-Varuna  will-i-approach  ?


                           ka   mṛlīka   suma   abhi   khyam

                                when     hismercy         joyfully              will-i-see                                                                                                                                                                                                           



                 alternates   with          present          with no specific  time reference

                                                                          to express  habitual   or  regular  eventualities

         1.152.3              tam    piparti    anrtaṃ   ni    tārīt

                                    truth  fills-promotes       un-truth             passes-dispels

                                                     pres.                                                                                         inj.


         1.165.10            :    ni    cyavam    indra   it    īśa    eṣām

                                  whatever    i-set-in-motion     Indra   rules    that

                                                                    pl.                                     inj.                                                    pres.


             6.30.2             dive-dive    riya:    darśata:    bhūt

                                           every-day   sun      visible      appears

                                                                                              Ao.  inj.


              alternates  with          imperfect         in narratives

       6.18.10           adhvānayat    duri    dambhayat   ca

                                 he-smoked-out     fortresses    and   sacked-them

                                              imperf.                                                                                     inj.


         4.1.18              ād   it   paś   bubudhā    vi    akhyan 

                                 then,  when   after    they-had-woken-up   they-looked  around

                                  abl.                                  perf.  part.                                Ao.                                                                                                                                                                        

                              ād   id    ratnam    dhārayanta     dyubhaktam

                                 then,      the-jewel   they-held-on to         that  heaven  had-bestowed

                                                                                                                caus.            inj.                                                                                           


        6.32.2               ta    avāsayat    rujat    adriṃ

                                         the-2mothers   he-illuminated   he-cracked    the-rock

                                                                                               caus.         imperf.                                 inj.                                                                                                                                                             


        parallelism  requires              like      ca

                   1.    different verbs   in same   tense / mood

                   2.    different   tense / mood      of  same  verb


         9.23.7        jagna     jaghanat    ca  nu

                            he-has-smashed    and   will-smash    now

                                      perf.                                                        subj.


               but    an    injunctive     can   conjoin   with   different  verb  and   different  tense / mood


         1.17.6               sanema     ni     ca     dhīmahi

                                      may-we-win      and    keep-it    dhā

                                               Op.                                                     inj.


         9.97.54                asvāpayan    niguta:    snehayat    ca

                                    they-put-to-sleep    Niguts    and   stuck   them to the ground

                                                                                     imperf.                                                                inj.


       4.42.3                   sam    airyam    rodasī    dhārayam   ca

                                           i-created   2worlds   and  sustained them

                                                                                  imperf.                                                                inj.


                   used in          prohibitions        with 

                           akṣai:       dīvya:

                                   with-dice     don’t    play  




               telic           specifies an internal endpoint  ( verb phrases not single verbs )

                                denotes a  ‘change of state’  if a specified quantity

                                     e.g.  'he built 3 sailboats’       completed action

                                may  use  adverbs denoting  endpoint        in  x  time,    for  x  time

                                                     terminative   adverbs          quantity 

                                slept  with 28  ladies,        built  3  sailboats


               atelic             if denotes a non-specific quantity

                                          ‘he smokes pot’

                                   may  use  adverbs  denoting  duration 

                                knows  28  ladies,        owns  3  sailboats


               the   telic  -  atelic    thing    seems   like  a big thing  in   Vedic