random collection of words       vs.      meaningful   phrases / sentences


           the brain is multi-layered

                    chemicals – electricity

                    atoms – molecules - cells

                    small neural columns – large neural columns

                    brain structures  -   brain areas

                    information systems

           they’re       related,      a family,     know each other,    connected,    a system


          a  meaningful  utterance        has  words   connected   by

                     sounds                             phonology     

                     word  structure                 morphology

                     sentence  structure          syntax

                     context                            semantics


         nouns    refer   to    things

         verbs     refer   to    events,  states,  situations


         in a meaningful  utterance,  things  and  events  refer  to each other  -   connected   in  some way      

                                   things / events         usually occur in sequence


         a connected  string of  Vedic  words    usually  starts of with an  initial reference

                    it  establishes  a conscious response in the mind of  the   hearer

                    it  then can be  followed by  subsequent  references  ( like pronouns )

                          these subsequent references  re-activate  the knowledge of the initial reference.

                          Julia  had  long  legs.

                          Julia  had  long  legs;  Julia would swish and sway down the side walk.

                          As  Julia  walked,  she  often looked in windows.

                    the initial   ‘Julia’   announces,  introduces  the    referent / initial reference

                            the following  noun / pronoun    implies-refers   back  to   initial  referent

                    an   initial referent   occurs  once,     and  can have  zero   subsequent  references

                                   or   one            or  many     


           it’s   common  in  Vedic  to  have        main clause – relative clause      combo

                     it  presupposes   a  following-refering    noun-pronoun

                           i saw the woman;   who  walks like that.


           relative – demonstrative  sequence    has  a  tight   connection,    strongly  cohesive

                          ya:     must be  resolved   by     sa:


           simple  connections

                         Mary  and   Penelope                             Mary    or   Penlope

           more   complex     cohesive   units   of   discourse

                          subordinate clause  -   main  clause

                          gāyatrī                   8      8      8                          syllables      per  line   -   pāda

                          anuṭubh               8      8      8      8                      

                          triṭubh                  11    11    11    11                

                          jagatī                     12    12    12    12                

                          uṇih                      8       8    12   

                          kakubh                   8     12     8     

                          bṛhatī                      8      8     12     8

                          satobṛhatī               12     8     12     8

                          atyaṭi                     12    12     8,        8    8,         12    8


               8   syllable  lines    are   split           4   opening,                            4     cadence        -     dimeter

               11                                                 4   opening,      3   break,        4     cadence        -     trimeter

               12                                                 5   opening,      2   break,        5     cadence


              Stanzas     consisting   of   4  padas         are   split

                         2   half-stanzas                             distiches

                                each   distich   usually   serves   as  an  independent   discourse  unit

                                distich  consists  of  2 pādas,

                                         each  pāda  themselves  are integral  units at a lower level of discourse


              dimeter  lines  have  less   discourse  development    then   trimeter   lines


              gāyatrī         the   least  development

                                 each   pāda            can  be   a  unit                                a / b / c

                                 or   first  2  pādas   can  be  a unit                                  ab / c

                                 or   last  2  pādas   can be a  unit                                    a / bc

                                 or    all   3  pādas   can  be a unit                                     abc

                       the  last   allowing  the  greatest   discourse  development


             most  complex     is the combo       bṛhatī            -         satobṛhatī

                                                              8   8   12   8       -      12   8   12   8

                                  these  contiguous  pādas      are  treated  as a single  discourse  unit


             the  degree  of  thought  complexity     can  be seen  in   structure





                8      8       /             syllables

                8      8      //

         whenever  a 32 bit computer  sends   information to another computer

                it checks for errors. 

                every 32 bit chunk is checked to make sure that it sent  exactly  32  bits

                       the  32 bit chunk   is  made up of 8 bit chunks, called  bytes

          the error checking method of anuṣṭubh   is  the same

                 notice  that it’s  32  syllables long 

                 the main unit is  8  bits  or  syllables

                  the mind can not easily  feel a 32 bit chunk   ( for total number of bits uttered )

                        but can feel an 8  syllable  chunk 


         āsīt    rājā    nala   nāma            vīrasenasuta    balī  /

                           8                                        8                                                                   

        upapanna     gunai   iṣṭai         rūpavān     aṣvakodida  //

                           8                                        8


        we have an   8  bit   unit,   16  bit  unit,   and   32   bit  unit

                                          ( byte )                    ( sentence-pāda )                           ( stanza )


         this  was  how   information   was accurately memorized  before  writing


         not   mnemonics   but  error   checking


         anuṣṭubh   had  8    bits  or  syllables

              āsīt   rājā   nāla   nāma

              in this case, if you put in a word that was not  2  syllables

                    it  would not total  8 ;    you  made an error

                    and  when you  add    context  and  grammar   

                            you have  an effective  error  checking  method


        triṣṭubh      11

        jagatī         12

               these were more  difficult  to feel  for    errors    ( total number of syllables )

               but    allowed  greater   discourse  development



            different     levels       of   connection,   conjunction

                      between       words                                Mary  and  Penelope


                                         pādas     of      dimeter


                     across       distich              boundries


                     final  stanza   may be  connected  differently


        there’s  also   different   degrees   of   connectedness

                      Mary  and  Penelope                                  strong

                      I  love    Mary,  Penelope,  and    Julia        less strong

                      ya  ….. sa / ta                                            strong

                      Indra ….. sa                                               less   strong

                      sa ….. sa       iterative                                strong


       ya:    śūrebhi:    havya:    ya:    ca    bhīrubhi:  /

             who  by-heros   is-to-be-called,      and  who    by-cowards


       ya:    dvadbhi:    yate    ya:    ca    jigyubhi:  //

            who   by-the-fleeing   is-called,     and  who   by-the-victorious


       indram    ya    viśvā    bhuvanābhi    saṃdadhur  /

            Indra   uponwhom     all   creatures     have-together-settheir sites 


       marutvantaṃ    sakhya    havāmahe  //

                marut-possessing     for-friendship   do-we-call       1.101.6


    the underlined  are  connectors   of  varying  levels  and  degrees

                  they  bind  together         words,  phrases,  sentences  


     and   -    low  level  connector

     who   -     stylistic    inner   connector

     whom  -     relative clause   connector

     Indra    -    outer        connects   distiches


7.92.3                   ni    na:    rayim    subhojasam    yuvasva  /

                       to-us    wealth     good-enjoyment     join

                                                                                                                                       imp.  mid.   yu ‘unite’

             ni    ram    gavyam    aśvyam    ca    dha:

                           son       cows          and  horses          grant 


                              ni    and   ca    operate  at different levels


3.4.11             ā    yāhi    agne    samidhāna:    ar  /

                   come-drive     O Agni       being-kindled    hitherwards


            indreṇa    devai:    saratham    turebhi:  //

                   with-Indra    with-Gods    on-same-chariot     with-powerful-swift


1.44.14          pibatu    somam    varuṇa:    dhṛtavrata:  /

                  let-drink    Soma     Varuṇa         vow-is-firm


           aśvibhyām    ua    sa:

                with-Aśvins   with-dawns     together-along


4.34.7                      sajoā    indra    varuṇena    somam  /

                        having-the-same-pleasure    O Indra    with-Varuṇa   Some


                 sajoā:    pāhi  ….  marudbhi:                    

                              togeather      drink      with-Maruts


1.23.7           marutvantam    havāmaha  /

                       possessing-Maruts     we-call


                indram    ā    somapītaye

                        Indra                for-the-drinking-of-Soma


          Conjunctive   particles

                      ca           occurs     1020     times

                      uta                           705

                      u                              500


                      adha                        191

                      ād                            104 


         ca     and    uta       =   and

                  ca    is   postpositional

                           agni    indra    ca             agni   ca   indra   ca

                  uta      is  prepositional

                           agni    uta    indra          uta   agni    uta   indra


        uta    conjoins    sentences,    stanzas      and     words  and phrazes  

                   conjoins  generally   but    also  does  the  higher  level  stuff ( sentences – stanzas )


        ca     conjoins     words    and   phrazes


1.17.6              tayo:    id    avasā    vayam  /

                            with-the-aid-of-these-two     we


                  sanema    ni    ca   dhīmahi  /

                           may-we-win    and   we-regard


                  sd    uta    prarecanam  //

                          and  may  it be   unlimited


        gāyatrī    ab / c

                  ca     conjoins   parallel  verbs

                  uta    conjoins    last  line  c        to   ab


       u       is   similar   to     ca   and   uta          but  different  of  course

                   often   a   subsidiary  marker       often      iterative

                   used  rarely   used   at  word  level


      adha     one-third   of the time   as   an  interstanza   connector      higher  level

                    similar  to  uta                             fairly  weak  connectors


      ād         time  adverb     (  and then     and thereupon )


                two-thirds  of the time  -   word  level

                    one-third                      -   phrase / sentence   level

                    syntacticly   used  like    ca


        particles    can    appear  together

                        and    uta      appear  together   often


1.94.5         dvipat    ca    yad    uta    catuspat

                     2footed   and      4footed         x    ca     ya    uta   y


8.83.9        yam    hi       sudānava:  /  …….

                    you-all    indeed     possessors   of-good-gifts   


            adhā    cid    va    uta    bruve

                    and therefore    to-you       i-speak