s aorist

Active Middle

 

s stām su: sta sātām sata

s stam sta sthā: sāthām dhvam

sam sva sma si svahi smahi

 

s-t

s-s

s-am

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rules

active finals and medials vṛddhi

middle unaltered

except ī u = guna

before dhvam

s is dropped vṛ avṛḍhvam

after domalizing vowels i e o

h is dropped of dh

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s likes roots ending in vowels

combines s easily and often ending with

c ś j h d dh p unambiguous

muc free amāukṣam

spṛś touch asprākṣam

bhaj deal abhākṣam

dah burn adākṣam

chid cut achāitsam

rudh hinder arāutsam

svap sleep asvāpsam

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kṛ śap course

akārṣ akārṣṭām akārṣu: aśapta aśapsātām aśapsata

akārṣ akārṣṭam akārṣṭa aśapthā: aśapsāthām aśabdhvam

akārṣam akārṣva akārṣma aśapsi aśapsvahi aśapsmahi

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dṛś stu

adrākṣ adrāṣṭām adrākṣu: astoṣṭa astoṣātām astoṣata

adrāk adrāṣṭam adrāṭa astoṭhā: astoṣāthām astohvan

adrākṣam adrākṣva adrākṣama astoṣi astoṣvahi astoṣmahi

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anaiṣ anaiṣṭām anaiṣu: aneṣṭa aneṣātām aneṣata

anaiṣ anaiṣṭam anaiṣṭa aneṣṭhā: aneṣāthām anethvam

anaiṣam anaiṣva anaiṣma aneṣi aneṣvahi aneṣmahi

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budh wake

abuddha abhutsātām abhutsata

abuddhā: abhutsāthām abhuddhvam

abhutsi abhutsvahi abhutsmahi

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iṣ aorist = apāvīs = apāvīt

apāvīs

apāvisam

 

but s aorist = apūs

apūs

apūsam

thus

prā fill ji win lead dah burn ric leave muc free

aprās ajāis anāis adhāk ārāik amāuk

aprās ajāis anāis adhāk arāik amāuk

aprāsam ajāiṣam anāiṣam adhākṣam arāikṣam amāukṣam

 

showing loss of tense sign

rudh hinder

arāuts īt arāud dhām arāuts us arud dha aruts ātām aruts ata

arāuts īs arāud dham arāuts va arud dhās aruts āthām aruts vahi

arāuts am arāuts va arāuts ma aruts i aruts vahi aruts mahi

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duh burn

adhākṣ īt ad āg dhām adhākṣ us ad ag dha adhakṣ ātām adhakṣ ata

adhākṣ īs ad āg dham adhākṣ va ad ag dhās adhakṣ āthām adhakṣ vahi

adhākṣ am adhākṣ va adhākṣ ma adhakṣ i adhakṣ āthām adhakṣ mahi

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stu subjunctive

stoṣati stoṣata: stoṣan stoṣate stoṣante

stoasi stoṣatha: stoatha stoase

stoṣāṇi stoṣāma stoṣai

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injunctive

ji jeam go yeam

go geam sthā stand stheam

give dema yu separate yauma

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optative

cut diīya bhaj divide bhakīya

man think masīya muc release mukīya

give rāsīya stṛṛ strew stṛīya

man think maṃsīṭhā: dṛ tear darīṭa

mṛc injure mṛkīṭa trā protect trāsīthām

van win vasīmahi sac follow sakīmahi

duh milk dhukīmahi

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imperative

lead nea pṛ take across para

sah sākva dah burn dhakat

sah sakat

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ci pile acāiṣam

ji win ajāiṣam

lead anāiṣam aneṣi

bhī fear abhāiṣam

śru hear aśrāuṣam

stu laud astāuṣam astoṣi

hu pour ahāuṣam

know ajāsam ajāsi

go ayāsam

quit ahāsam ahāsi

kṛ make akārṣam akṛṣi

tṛ pass atārṣam

smṛ mind asmārṣam

hṛ take ahārṣam ahṛṣi

( medial vowel )

chid cut achāitsam achitsi

ric leave arāikṣam arikṣi

muc free amāukṣam amukṣi

rudh hinder arāutsam arutsi

dṛś see adrākṣam adṛkṣi

spṛś touch asprākṣam

pṛś ask aprākṣam

sṛj emit asrākṣam asṛkṣi

tyaj quit atyākṣam

vas dwell avātsam

dah burn adhākṣam

vyadh pierce avyātsam

yam hold ayāmsam ayamsi

vap strew avāpsam

svap sleep asvāpsam

bhaj break abhānkṣam

saj cling asānkṣam asakṣi

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dṛś see dṛṣṭa

yuj join yukta

mṛj wipe mṛṣṭa

duh milk dugdha

ruh ascend rūḍha

pac cook apākta

bhaj deal abhākta

bhaj break abhāǹkta

muc free amukthās

dṛś see adrāṣṭa

spṛś touch asprāṣṭa

mṛj wipe amārṣṭa

sṛj emit asṛṣṭhās

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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irregulars