Intensive a secondary verbal derivative

 

intense frequent repetition She frequently beats him

Are restricted to roots with initial consonants, never to dirivatives

monosyllabic roots only

no class 10

Present System 2 forms - like Class 3 kṛ carkarti active

like Passive kṛ cekrīyate middle

 

reduplication ya middle voice ru rorūyate

passive looking but not passive

 

 

or

reduplication no ya active voice jap jaṅjapīti

 

usually the reduplicated vowel is strenghtened

a, = ā vāvad, dādhṛ

i, ī = e nenī

u, ū = o śośuc hu - hohu

 

sometimes the reduplicating syllable has a final consonant

taken from the end of root

carcar marmṛj

 

sometimes the reduplication is dissyllabic

an i inserted after the final consonant of the reduplicating syllable

varīvṛt

 

sometimes an ī inserted between stem and ending

reduplication ( of non ya ) is based on the root alone

 

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Active Middle

kṛ nṛt

carīkarti carīkṛta: carīkrati narīnṛtyate narīnṛtyete narīnṛtyante

carīkari carīkṛtha: carīkṛtha nrīnṛtyase narīnṛtyethe nafīnṛtyadhve

carīkarmi carīkṛva: carīkṛma: nrīnṛtye nrīnṛtyāvahe narīnṛtyāmahe

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active middle

bhū

Present

bobhoti bobhūta: bobhavati bobhūyate bobhūyete bobhūyante

bobhoi bobhūtha: bobhūtha bobhūyase bobhūyethe bobhūyadhve

bobhomi bobhūva bobhūma: bobhūye bobhūyāvahe bobhūyāmhe

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bhū Imperfect budh imperfect

abobhot abobhutām abobhavu: abobudhyata abobudhyetām abobudhyanta

abobho: abobhutam abobhūta abobudhyathā: abobudhyethām abobudhyadhvam

abobhavam abobhūva abobhūma abobudhye abobudhyāvahi abobudhvāmahi

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

imperative

nenīyatām nenīyetām nenīyantām

nenīyasva nenīyethām nenīyadhvam

nenīyai nenīyādahai nenīyāmahai

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kṛ optative

cekrīyeta cekrīyeyātām cekrīyeran

cekrīyethā: = cekrīyeyāthām cekrīyadhvam

cekrīyeya cekrīyevahi cekrīyemahi

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Middle Active

 

aṭ wander aṭāṭyate

k cekrīyate carkarti

kram stride cakramyate cakramīti

gam jagamyate jagamīti

car move cacaryate cacurīti

jan generate jaanyate jajanīti

jval flame jājavalyate jājvalīti

tṛṛ cross tetīryate tātarīti

daṃś bite dandaśyate dandaśīti

dah burn dandahyate dandahīti

dā give dedīyate dādāti

dīp shine dedīpyate dedipīti

nt dance narīntyate narīnarti

pā drink pepīyate pāpāti

pac cook pāpacyate pāpacīti

prach ask parīpcchayate pāpracchīti

budh know bobudhyate bobudhīti

bhid break bebhidyate bebhidīti

bhram roam bambhramyate bambhramīti

m die vemrīyate marīmarti

yaj sacrifice yāyajyate yāyajīti

ru cry rorūyate roravīti

ruc like rorucyate rorucīti

rud weep rorudyate rorudīti

lih lick lelihyate lelihīti

lup bite off lolupyate lolupīti

lubh be greedy lolubhyate lolubhīti

vad vāvadyate vāvadīti

vt be varīvtyate varīvarti

vraj go vāvrajyate vāvrajīti

śuc grieve śośucyate śośucīti

śubh shine śośubhyate śośubhīti

sad sit sāsdyate sāsdīti

s move sesrīyate sarīsarti

sp crawl sarīspyate sarīspīti

sm remember sāsmaryate sāsmarīti

svap sleep soṣupyate sāsvapīti

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सा ओदनम् पापच्यते

he rice cooks-cooks

 

मतय: अद्य देदीप्यमानं सन्ति

thoughts today shining-shining are

 

स: कृषक: कार्यम् चरीकर्ति

the farmer work does-does

 

गौ: वत्सम् लेलिह्यन्ते

cow calf licks-licks

 

सा प्रात: चङ्क्रम्यमाणा ध्यायति

she in-the-morning walking-walking ponders

 

अज: क्षेत्रे अटाट्यते

goat in-field wander-wander

 

पक्षिन: चञ्च्वा आम्रम् बोभिद्यन्ताम्

bird with-beak mango break-break

 

बम्भ्रम्यमाण: पथिक: सुराम् पिपासति

roaming-roaming traveller wine wants-to-drink

सा नारी रोरूद्यते

the lady weep-weep

 

वृषभ: मार्गे चञ्चूर्यते

bull on-road walk-walk

 

सा तम् सत्याय पाप्रच्छीति

she him for-truth ask-ask

 

मनस् दिनम् दिनम् नरीनर्ति

mind day-in day-out dance-dance