·      absolute construction   allways  accompanied by a participle

·      temporal or qualifying  clause

·      participle agrees with a subject, different from the subject of the verb.

·      phrase is unconnected with the general structure of the clause

·      nominative of subordinate clause is not noun of principal clause

·      subject or object is not repeated in principal clause –except genitive-

·      action done at a different time then principal time – locative-

·       contempt or  disregard   - genitive –





1.16       indram prātar  havāmaha  indram  prayati  adhvare

                    Indra  early  we-invoke,   Indra   when sacrifice proceeds  


 1.184         vām  adya  v  aparam  huvema  uchantyām  uasi

                     so  you2  today,  so you 2 in future we-would-invoke when dawn shines forth