5 forms take Reduplication

 

3rd class Perfect an Aorist desiderative intensive

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            first syllable budh percieve bu-budh

 

            aspirated bhī fear bi-bhī - dhā put da-dhā

 

            gutterals gam go ja-gam - khan dig ca-khan

 

            2 consonants kram stride ca-kram

 

            sibilant followed by hard cononant sthā stand ta-sthā

skand leap ca-skand - svaj embrace sa-svaj - smi smile si-mi

 

             if radical vowel is long, it is shortened in the redup.

give da-dā - rādh succeed ra-rādh

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3rd class

 

ṛṛ to i --- bhṛ bear bi-bharti - pṛṛ fill piparti

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Perfect

 

ṛṛ to a ā --- kṛ ca-kṛ - tṛṛ ta-tṛ

klp cā-klp - ār

initial a ā to ā --- an breath ān

 

initial i u to ī ū --- uc be pleased ūcie

 

containing ya va to i u --- tyaj ti-tyaj - yaj i-yaj

vac u-vac - vad u-vad

vah u-vah - svap su-vap

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Intensive

 

i ī = e

diś dediś, nenī, śuc śośuc

u ū = o

nu nonu, bhū bobhū

a ā ṛṛ = ā sibilants, mutes

kāś cākaś pat pāpat gam jāgam

gṛ jāgṛ dṛ dādṛ

dhṛ dādhṛ cal cācal

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kṛ carkṛ kṛ carkṛ dṛ dardṛ

dhṛ dardhṛ hṛ jarhṛ car carcar

phar parphar cal calcal daṃś dandas

gam jaṅgam jambh jajab tan taṃstan

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gam ganīgam han ghanīghan krand kanikrand

skand kanikand bhṛ bharībhṛ vṛt varīvṛt

dhū davidhv dyut davidyut

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Desiderative

 

i

jyā jijyāsa miś mimika prī piprīa

vṛt vivṛtsa huh juguka bhū bubhūa

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Aorist

 

themetic secondary endings at atām an

beginning with double consonant = weak = dru - adudruvat

single = strong = muc - amūmucat

asperant treated as single = strong = dh - adīdharat

strong vowel usually weakens sūd = asūsudat

a ā i ī = i

u ū = u

causatives in ā endings with p

keep p

know payati ajijipat

sthā stand sthāpayati atiṣṭhipat